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AN III.65

Kalama Sutta
To the Kalamas


Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

增支部III.65

卡拉瑪經

坦尼沙羅尊者英譯, 良稹中譯

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尊者與學者談人們對卡拉瑪經的誤解

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at Kesaputta, a town of the Kalamas. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative -- the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan -- has arrived at Kesaputta. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known -- having realized it through direct knowledge -- this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

        如是我聞,一時薄伽梵與一大群比丘在拘薩羅國游方,來到卡拉瑪(伽藍磨)人居住的克薩普達(羇舍子)城。克薩普達的卡拉瑪人聽聞:沙門喬達摩從釋迦族出家的釋迦之子已來到克薩普達。關於喬達摩大師,流傳著這樣的好名聲。他確是一位阿羅漢、正自覺者、明行足、善逝者、世間解、無上調禦者、人天之師、佛陀、 薄伽梵。他親證了法,之後在這個有天神、魔羅、梵天、行者僧侶與王者平民的世界上宣講;他解說的法義,始善、中善、後善; 他講述的梵行,在細節與要義上,圓滿具足、清淨非凡。見這樣一位阿羅漢是件善事。

So the Kalamas of Kesaputta went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of them bowed down to him and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence.

        於是卡拉瑪人去見薄伽梵。到達時,有的向他頂禮,在一旁坐下。有的與他相互問候,在友好的問候與禮節之後,在一旁坐下。有的合掌於胸前,朝他致意,在一旁坐下。有的自報姓名後,在一旁坐下。有的不出聲,在一旁坐下。

As they sat there, the Kalamas of Kesaputta said to the Blessed One, "Lord, there are some priests & contemplatives who come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. And then other priests & contemplatives come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. They leave us absolutely uncertain & in doubt: Which of these venerable priests & contemplatives are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?"

        他們在一旁坐著時,克薩普達的卡拉碼人對薄伽梵說: 世尊,有一些僧侶行者來到克薩普達。他們闡述、頌揚自己的教義,但是對於他人的教義,則貶低、辱罵、鄙視、毀謗。接著,又有其他僧侶行者來到克薩普達。他們闡述、頌揚自己的教義,但是對於他人的教義,則貶低、辱罵、鄙視、毀謗。他們根本讓我們疑惑不定: 這些尊敬的僧侶行者們,哪些講真話,那些在欺騙?

"Of course you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course you are in doubt. When there are reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born. So in this case, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering' -- then you should abandon them.

        卡拉瑪人,你們當然不確定。你們當然有疑惑。當有某些原因使你們疑惑、不確定,就象這個情形時,卡拉瑪人,不要只聽從報道、傳聞、傳統、經典、猜測、推論、類比、同感、可能性、或者這位行者是我們的老師的想法。當你親自了解了,這些素質是缺乏技巧的;這些素質是該受責備的;這些素質受智者的批評;這些素質采納施行起來,趨向傷害與苦痛那時你應當棄絕它們。 

"What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this greedy person, overcome by greed, his mind possessed by greed, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

 

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起貪欲時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有害。

        這個貪人,爲貪意左右,心受貪意控制: 他殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的傷害與苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this aversive person, overcome by aversion, his mind possessed by aversion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

 

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起瞋怒時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有害。

        這個瞋人,爲瞋意左右,心受瞋意控制: 他殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的傷害與苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this deluded person, overcome by delusion, his mind possessed by delusion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

 

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起癡迷時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有害。

        這個癡人,爲癡意左右,心受癡意控制: 他殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的傷害與苦痛。

        正是,世尊。

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Unskillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameworthy, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Criticized by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to harm & to suffering, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to harm & to suffering. That is how it appears to us."

 

        那麽,卡拉瑪人:這些素質是善巧還是缺乏善巧?

        世尊,它們缺乏善巧

        是該受責備,還是無可責備?

        世尊,它們該受責備。

        是受智者批評還是贊揚?

        世尊,它們受智者的批評。

        采納施行起來,是否趨向傷害與苦痛?

        世尊,它們采納施行起來,趨向傷害與苦痛。

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" -- then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

 

        因此,卡拉瑪人,我說過,不要只聽從報道,傳聞、傳統、經典、猜測、推論、類比、同感、可能性、或者這位行者是我們的老師的想法。 當你親自了解了,這些素質是缺乏技巧的;這些素質是該受責備的;這些素質受智者的批評;這些素質采納施行起來,趨向傷害與苦痛那時你應當棄絕它們。是這樣說的. 是指這方面而說。

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' -- then you should enter & remain in them.

        再者,卡拉瑪人,不要只聽從報道、傳聞、傳統、經典、猜測、推論、類比、同感、可能性、或者這位行者是我們的老師的想法。當你親自了解了,這些素質是善巧的;這些素質是無可責備的;這些素質受智者的贊揚;這些素質采納奉行起來,趨向安寧與幸福那時你應當進入、安住其中。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this ungreedy person, not overcome by greed, his mind not possessed by greed, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起離貪之意時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有益。

        這個離貪之人,不爲貪意左右,他的心不受貪意控制: 他戒殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的安寧與幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this unaversive person, not overcome by aversion, his mind not possessed by aversion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起離瞋之意時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有益。

        這個離瞋之人,不爲瞋意左右,他的心不受瞋意控制: 他戒殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的安寧與幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this undeluded person, not overcome by delusion, his mind not possessed by delusion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

 

        卡拉瑪人,你們認爲如何,當一個人昇起離癡之意時,是有益還是有害?

        世尊,是有益。

        這個離癡之人,不爲癡意左右,他的心不受癡意控制: 他戒殺生、不予而取、追逐他人之妻、說謊並誘使他人效仿,這一切皆有長遠的安寧與幸福。

        正是,世尊。

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Skillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameless, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Praised by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to welfare & to happiness, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to welfare & to happiness. That is how it appears to us."

 

        那麽,卡拉瑪人:這些素質是善巧還是缺乏善巧?

        世尊,它們是善巧的。

        是該受責備,還是無可責備?

        世尊,它們無可責備。

        是受智者批評還是贊揚?

        世尊,它們受智者贊揚。

        采納施行起來,是否趨向安寧與幸福?

        世尊,它們采納施行起來,趨向安寧與幸福。

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness" -- then you should enter & remain in them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

        因此,卡拉瑪人,我說過,不要只聽從報道,傳聞、傳統、經典、猜測、推論、類比、同感、可能性、或者這位行者是我們的老師的想法。當你親自了解了,這些素質是善巧的;這些素質是無可責備的;這些素質受智者的贊揚;這些素質采納奉行起來,趨向安寧與幸福那時你應當進入、安住其中。' 是這樣說的,是指這方面而說 。

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones -- thus devoid of greed, devoid of ill will, undeluded, alert, & resolute -- keeps pervading the first direction [the east] -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with compassion. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with compassion: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with appreciation. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with appreciation: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction -- as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth -- with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

        卡拉瑪人,一位聖者的弟子如此離貪、離瞋、離癡、警覺、堅定以滿懷善意(慈)的覺知,連續朝第一個方向[東方]、又朝第二、第三、第四個方向傳送。如此,他以滿懷善意的覺知,連續朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容萬物的宇宙各處、各方傳送: 充沛、寬廣、無量、無敵意、無惡意。

        他以滿懷同情(悲)的覺知,連續朝第一個方向、又朝第二、第三、第四個方向傳送。如此,他以滿懷同情的覺知,連續朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容萬物的宇宙各處、各方傳送: 充沛、寬廣、無量、無敵意、無惡意。

        他以滿懷隨喜(喜)的覺知,連續朝第一個方向、又朝第二、第三、第四個方向傳送。如此,他以滿懷隨喜的覺知,連續朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容萬物的宇宙各處、各方傳送: 充沛、寬廣、無量、無敵意、無惡意。

        他以滿懷平等(舍)的覺知,連續朝第一個方向、又朝第二、第三 、第四個方向傳送。如此,他以滿懷平等的覺知,連續朝上、朝下、周遭,朝包容萬物的宇宙各處、各方傳送: 豐富、寬廣、無量、無敵意、無惡意。

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease -- free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both respects.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires these four個 assurances in the here-&-now."

        卡拉瑪人,一位聖者的弟子如此心無敵意、心無惡意、清淨無染即時即地便得四個保障。

        如果死後另有世界,如果善行惡行有果報,以此爲據,死後隨色身分解,我將重生善處、天界。' 這是他所得的第一個保障。

        但是,如果死後非另有世界,如果善行惡行無果報,那麽此生此地,我遠離敵意、遠離惡意、遠離困頓,自在地照顧自己。' 這是他所得的第二個保障。

        如果行爲造作惡業,我卻不曾對任何人起過惡意。既不造惡業,苦又從何觸及我?'這是他所得的第三個保障。

        但是,如果行爲不造惡業,那麽我可以認爲自己在這兩方面是清淨的。'這是他所得的第四個保障。

        一位聖者的弟子如此心無敵意、心無惡意、清淨無染即時即地便得這四個保障。

"So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease -- free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both ways.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones -- his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure -- acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now.

 

        是這樣,世尊。是這樣啊,善逝者。一位聖者的弟子如此心無敵意、心無惡意、清淨無染即時即地便得 四個保障。

        如果死後另有世界,如果善行惡行有果報,以此爲據,死後隨色身分解,我會重生善處、天界。' 這是他所獲的第一個保障。

        但是,如果死後非另有世界,如果善行惡行無果報,那麽此生此地,我遠離敵意、遠離惡意、遠離困頓,自在地照顧自己。' 這是他所得的第二個保障。

        如果行爲造作惡業,我卻不曾對任何人起過惡意。既不造惡業,苦又從何觸及我?'這是他所得的第三個保障。

        但是,如果行爲不造惡業,那麽我可以認爲自己在這兩方面是清淨的。'這是他所得的第四個保障。

        一位聖者的弟子如此心無敵意、心無惡意、清淨無染即時即地便得這四個保障。

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

勝哉!世尊,勝哉!世尊正好比將顛倒之物置正、把隱秘之事揭開、爲迷途者指路、在黑夜裏舉燈、使有目者見形,同樣地,世尊藉多方推理,闡明了法。我們歸依世尊、歸依法、歸依僧。願世尊記得我們這些從今天起一生歸依於他的居家弟子們。

尊者與學者談人們對卡拉瑪經的誤解

坦尼沙羅尊者: (摘自本經英譯者注)
        盡管這部經文常被引用,作爲佛陀許可人們跟著自己對錯感走的空白通行證,文中所講實際要嚴格得多。對於傳統,不能只因爲是傳統就奉行。對於報道,不能只因爲來源似乎可靠(例如曆史記載或者新聞)就聽信。對於個人偏好,不能只因爲它看上去符合邏輯或反映個人感情,就遵循。反之,任何見解與信仰,必須受實證檢驗; 而且爲了防止那些檢驗結果帶著個人偏見與理解限制必須進一步對照智者的經驗

菩提尊者:(摘自講經錄音以及《讀卡拉瑪經》一文)
        在卡拉瑪經中,佛陀爲我們提供了幾個判斷某個靈性教導是有益還是有害的標准。運用這些判斷標准,我們采納或放棄某種靈性教導,使我們的生活對己對人有益。不過,卡拉瑪經在佛教圈子裏,在佛教宣傳家當中十分流行,經常給理解成,你可以同時既是一位佛教徒,又想信什麽就信什麽,因爲這部經告訴你,不應依靠任何外在權威。如果是那樣的話,爲什麽你依靠佛陀呢,依靠你自己行了。

        根據單獨一個段落,斷章取義地引用,佛陀被人們描繪成一個務實的經驗主義者,他排斥一切信仰,他的法不過是一個自由思考者的工具箱,讓每個人用來隨心所欲地接受、排斥任何事物。

        [卡拉瑪經中]佛陀首先肯定卡拉瑪人有疑問是合理的,這個肯定是在鼓勵自由探索; 接著,他建議卡拉瑪人放棄那些自己確知是不良的教導,接受那些他們確知是善良的教導。這個建議,如果給道德感低下者,是很危險的。我們因此可以假設,佛陀把卡拉瑪人看作具有良好道德感的群體。不過,他還是沒有讓他們單獨自己去摸索,而是藉著提問,使他們理解,趨向傷害與痛苦的貪、瞋、癡,應當放棄,對衆生的善意,應當培養。

        那麽,卡拉瑪經是否如許多人認爲的那樣,表明佛陀弟子可以不需要任何信仰與教義,他應該以個人經驗爲標准,來判斷佛陀教導,如果不一致就可以拒絕呢? 佛陀的確沒有要求卡拉瑪人相信他而接受他的教導,但是讓我們注意到重要一點: 在經文開始時,卡拉瑪人並不是佛陀的弟子。他們只是把他當成一個咨詢專家,希望能幫助自己解除某個疑惑,而沒有把他當成如來,要求他指出靈性進步與解脫之路。

        應當公正地指出,佛陀教導當中,那些屬於我們常規經驗範疇內的,是可以親身證實的,而這樣的證實提供了一個堅實基礎,去信賴那些必然超越常規經驗的教導。佛陀的教導中,信仰本身從來不是目的,也不足以保證解脫,而是作爲起點,開始一個內在轉化過程,最終達到親身的洞見。但是爲了這個洞見真正有解脫之力,它必須在我們對自己在世處境與解脫的尋求之地有著准確的理解這個背景下進行。佛陀對人類處境已獲得深刻的理解,并把這些真理傳授給了我們。藉著仔細思索之後接受它們,就是走上一條道路,最終将化信仰爲智慧、化信心爲確定,從苦中解脫。

理查德-貢布裏奇:(牛津大學巴利學與梵文學教授,摘自《上座部佛教》一書)
        有一段經文在現代西方極其流行,因爲它似乎帶有個人主義訊息,這便是《卡拉瑪經》。在這部經中佛陀教導說,每個人應當自己判斷宗教教義; 對一種教說不應輕信,而必须親身驗證。這確是一段極其重要的談話。不過細讀之下可見,佛陀至少是極具自信,人們聽從這段忠告,將會接受他的教導。他的忠告,是一位背離常規權威的創新者之言,但這並不意味著他本人對真理的了解有任何缺陷或僅在主觀上有效。用史蒂芬-科林斯的說法,佛陀之意非是創造你自己的真理(Make your own truth),而是使真理成爲你自己的(Make the Truth your own)。


相關連接:
        坦尼沙羅尊者: 信仰與覺醒

最近訂正 5-15-2009